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System Based Conflict

The key challenges of implementing early warning as a conflict prevention mechanism has perenially remained the gap between the early warning expert and the policy makers/implementors.I am precisely interested in ECOWARN. According to Catherine, the system has been tested in full in Ghana and Liberia. I would like to know more about that. I am currently researching on EWRS in ECOWAS.Thank you.

System Based Conflict


Hello Catherine,This is a great piece and well presented especially for those of us in North Central Nigeria looking forward to develop an EWRS to address the new trends of conflicts that has shown no sign of slowing down. One such trend is a kind of Community organized kidnapping of unsuspecting commuters, high profile citizens or harmless children of different background from the perpetrators to demand ransom with aim to fund procurement of sophisticated weapon of mass destruction and counter surveillance communication system, etc. to be deployed for a more deadly conflict attacks.

Can you help me about Early warning and evacuation system tool kit. What should be the tools and tackles to actually needed for quick response and data collection etc.? Is there already any existing standard tool kit containing all necessary equipments available?I will appreciate if you help me out in this.

To prevent the conflict within ECOWAS in particular and African continent in general, it's important to stop the change of constitution. Because the main causes of conflict in Africa, are: political, Social, Economic, and Institutional and Cultural. All the Presidents should respect their constitution, organize free and fear, and credible elections and handover the power to the elected president. They must accept the transition like Ghana which is an example in West Africa region in term of democracy and good gevernance.

EWER is real time based conflict management mechanism designed to meet peculiar need. Effectiveness lies in local ownership and integration of the processes of EW and ER. Thus, the need for strong linkage between "warners" and "responders". in most cases, EWER failed due to the large scope designed to cover with insufficient resources especially, human, for strong linkage between EW and ER. To get the best of EWER, the key is start with a pilot scheme. Thereafter, escalate and manage.

Good day Catherine, thank you for your presentation on EWRS. I would like to set up one to combat conflict escalation among cattle keepers. Would you mind to share with me a standard tool kit, if any, in this regard?

Hello Catherine, looking at the Nigeria situation (north east and north central) haven monitor and identified all conflict indicators, with lacked of political will or lacked of responders, what should be the next line of action to avert possible escalation to violence? Thank you.

The article is very educative on conflict prevention structures. This is what is lacking in most areas ridden with violent conflicts. Structures may exist on the upper end of society but where it matters most, on the ground, there are no meaningful structures if any. with such early warning structures the probability of conflicts degenerating into violence is minimized. we will be interrogating this concept further. Thany you.

I wish to know the role of Road Safety Officers in either EW or ER. As a Road Safety Special Marshall, I was invited to a training on EWER in North Central Nigeria and I was asking myself, what exactly will be my role in the system?

Hello Catherine, I'll like to know more on the implementaion of EWRS between the Warner's and the Responders, especially in the case where warnees (mostly government) in the case of the North central region of Nigeria, also play a role of negligence thereby leading to leading to lack of confidence in the warner by the responders, with the escalation of conflict to every part of the zones. Thank you

Hello Catherine,Can you help me on Early warning response system in countering violent extremism and type of early warning response system can be used in countering violent extremism.And also, what are the global strategies were employed in prevention of radicalization of violent extremist groups.I will appreciate if you help me out in this.

Information fusion [2] is an application field that combines data from multiple sources to support decision analysis. Applying information fusion technology to MAS can process the information and provide more complete judgment, evaluation, and decision making. Using the appropriate information fusion method, the local information perceived by an agent is fused in space, time, and function. Therefore, identifying the way by which to fuse conflicting information and make correct judgments represents the main challenge in multi-agent information fusion (MAIF).

The MAIF system mainly studies the communication, coordination, and conflict resolution between multiple agents. It is an autonomous solution to the problem of information fusion among agents in MAS. It focuses on the analysis of information fusion between multiple agents rather than the autonomy and development of a single agent. In the process of MAIF, even if all agents use the same original detection data, the conclusions given may be inconsistent, because the reasoning model used by each agent is not necessarily the same. There have been many attempts to improve performance, such as distributed weighting [19] and relative reliability evaluation [20,21]. However, they do not focus on the measurement of uncertainty between information sources from different institutions. Moreover, the methods somewhat struggle to combine conclusions in the process of MAIF.

Yager proposed a weighted fusion method of relevant evidence with the relative independence degree set as weight [36]. The so-called degree of relative independence refers to the degree of independence of the latter evidence relative to all previous evidence. The evidence uses the relative independence degree as a means of discounting the factors to process. In doing so, it can be regarded as independent of the previous evidence, and, thus, D-S combination rule can be used for fusion. The method depends on the order of evidence fusion. The evidence in the front has a great impact on the fusion results. Therefore, a method based on the information quantity of evidence is proposed in [36] to reduce the loss of information as much as possible. However, this method does not provide the basis for determining the degree of relative independence. When the amount of evidence is large, the computational complexity of the method greatly increases. In order to determine the correlation degree of the discount model, a method to solve the correlation discount coefficient based on the network analysis method is proposed in [37]. This method needs to rely on expert opinion for modeling, which has certain subjectivity.

Tessem [38] designed the pignistic probability distance to describe evidence similarity based on pignistic probability. The distance was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the approximate calculation algorithm of evidence combination. Bauer [39] also conducted a similar study. Pignistic probability distance has been widely used. However, there remain misunderstandings regarding its definition, and it is misused. Liu et al. [40] indirectly defined evidence distance based on DSMP probability. Cuzzolin [41] designed and proposed a geometric interpretation of evidence theory. On this basis, Jousselme et al. [42] defined the evidence distance. Then, many studies of evidence distance applications emerged. Deng et al. [43] defined the similarity between evidence volume using Jousselme evidence distance, and then the weight correction evidence to be combined was generated. Liu [44] used pignistic probability distance and Dempster combination conflict coefficient K to form a binary, which was used to describe the conflict between evidence bodies. Ristic et al. [45] realized target identity association based on multiple uncertain information sources in a TBM framework by using evidence distance. Zouhal et al. [46] introduced a mean square deviation distance based on pignistic probability, which corresponds to BPA. The distance effectively improved the accuracy rate of evidence of the k-nearest neighbor classifier. Schubert [47] used evidence distance for clustering analysis, and an ideal clustering performance was observed.

In modern payment systems that are used today, non-cash payments are predominantly executed by banks, acting as an intermediary between payers and payees, in the form of bank-to-bank (interbank) funds transfers through bank accounts. A fundamental structural change has been introduced to this method of making payments with the emergence of cryptocurrencies underpinned by distributed ledger technology (DLT). This has enabled that non-cash payments can be made outside of the banking system directly from payer to payee and secure digital records can be held independently of the usual central trusted authorities such as banks. This global paradigm shift, starting with the possibilities of cryptocurrencies in payments, has introduced new challenges for private international law. The issue of characterisation of cryptocurrency transfers in DLT-based systems is at the heart of the some of the key private international law questions, including the determination of the law applicable to cryptocurrency transfers. The efforts have thus far mainly focused on characterising cryptocurrencies themselves as money, property or claims and a discussion around the application of the lex situs as the predominant connecting factor in international property law and the consideration of the relevant conflict of laws rules regarding the transfer of intangibles for cryptocurrency transfers. The purpose of this chapter is to offer a new perspective on the characterisation of cryptocurrency transfers taking place within DLT-based cryptocurrency systems by utilising an analogy to electronic funds transfers and funds transfer systems under unitary and segmented approaches and consider the potential effects of both approaches on the law applicable to cryptocurrency transfers. 041b061a72


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