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Nadia Weight Gain Full Version D ~REPACK~


Background: Meat intake may be related to weight gain because of its high energy and fat content. Some observational studies have shown that meat consumption is positively associated with weight gain, but intervention studies have shown mixed results.




Nadia Weight Gain Full Version D


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Objective: Our objective was to assess the association between consumption of total meat, red meat, poultry, and processed meat and weight gain after 5 y of follow-up, on average, in the large European population who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Physical Activity, Nutrition, Alcohol, Cessation of Smoking, Eating Out of Home and Obesity (EPIC-PANACEA) project.


Results: Total meat consumption was positively associated with weight gain in men and women, in normal-weight and overweight subjects, and in smokers and nonsmokers. With adjustment for estimated energy intake, an increase in meat intake of 250 g/d (eg, one steak at approximately 450 kcal) would lead to a 2-kg higher weight gain after 5 y (95% CI: 1.5, 2.7 kg). Positive associations were observed for red meat, poultry, and processed meat.


Results: Weight gain, change in body condition score, feed digestibility, and fecal particle size were not significantly different between horses that underwent dental floating and untreated control horses. In contrast, weight gain was significantly associated with feed group. In the control horses, neither the number of dental lesions nor the presence of any particular type of lesion at the time of the initial oral examination was significantly associated with subsequent feed digestibility.


Additionally, stress and related constructs appear to alter overall energy intake through under- or overeating, depending on the nature of the stressor, its severity as well as an individual predisposition7. In a cross-sectional study in pregnant women, emotional problems and negative attitudes towards the baby were related to dietary behavior, as was the pre-pregnancy body mass index8. Apart from stress, a meta-analysis suggests that depression is linked to weight and weight gain in a bidirectional manner9.


Nevertheless, evidence for an association between stress and related constructs and weight gain during pregnancy is mixed which may be due to different measurements of stress. One systematic review10 concluded that maternal depression, but not anxiety or stress during pregnancy appears to have a direct relationship with excessive gestational weight gain (GWG). Another systematic review11 reported that only one out of the seven included studies observed a negative association between depression and excessive GWG, whereas no link between stress or anxiety and excessive GWG was reported. Furthermore, in a large study of 13,314 mothers11, depression was not meaningfully associated with inadequate or excessive GWG, yet a later study12 reported a relationship beween anxiety and GWG in multiparous women only. Notably, most of the evidence is based on self-reported pre- and post-pregnancy body weight as well as self-reported body height with higher potential for misclassification than prospective measurement of maternal weight13,14.


Given previous inconsistent results, this study aims to investigate the association of stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms with GWG based on paper documentation of routine preventive medical examination including several measurements of body weight. We hypothesized that higher stressed mothers would gain more or less weight than lower stressed mothers due to mechanisms e.g., like a change in the HPA axis or changed dietary behaviors. Thereby, hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) were measured as a potential biomarker of HPA axis activation. The assessment of the biological stress response by using HCC has gained interest, as it offers a way to assess aggregated, long-term cortisol levels with a single non-invasive sampling15,16,17. By capitalizing on the continuous incorporation of lipophilic substances into the slowly growing hair matrix, HCC are assumed to provide an easily obtainable index of hormone levels integrated over the periods of several months. HCC may thus be more representative of normal, long-term cortisol secretion than single measures in saliva, blood, or urine. We further analyzed the associations of self-reported stress or related constructs with GWG above or below cut-offs recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM)18 to compare the results.


Our data support consistent positive associations between SSCS-TICS, HADS-D, HADS-A, PANX, and HCC and pre-pregnancy body weight, but GWG seems to be lower in mothers scoring high on SSCS-TICS. However, primarily concerning the WHO categories of GWG, one review20 reported no convincing association between chronic stress and GWG. Women with high reported stress during pregnancy tended to have low GWG in one study of racially diverse women28. Likewise, higher stress was related to inadequate GWG29 in African-American women. Conversely, other studies (see review30) found no association between chronic stress and low GWG as we did when referring to WHO categories. Given a relatively high socioeconomic status in our study population, we might underestimate the association between chronic stress and inadequate GWG as measured relative to the pre-pregnancy BMI. We did not observe an association for anxiety symptoms and GWG, which is in line with some (see, e.g.,20) but not all reports. Hartley et al.12 showed that higher anxiety was related to greater GWG for 143/256 multiparous women, but, in general, the number of studies on anxiety and weight gain is rather small31. Also, covariates including income, health behavior engaged during pregnancy, and familial or social support can modify the association between stress or related constructs and GWG32 - factors we could not account for.


Taken together, we conclude that there might be evidence of an association between stress and maternal body weight and weight gain lying beyond what is measured by the IOM categories, which however needs corroboration in other studies. Indeed, further studies should additionally analyse dietary behavior and cortisol to better understand the underling mechanisms between maternal stress, related constructs and pregnancy weight (gain).


The study analysis also looked at changes in weight in arm A, finding that TAFED recipients gained more weight after 48 weeks than TLD recipients (+2.8 vs 1.1kg). Weight gain was more pronounced in arm B, where TAFED and TLD recipients gained 5.4kg and 5kg respectively after 48 weeks, compared to 2.8kg in the atazanavir recipients and 2kg in the lopinavir recipients. But when weight gain in arm B was analysed by sex, TAFED was associated with greater weight gain in women (+5.7kg) compared to other regimens, whereas the greatest weight gain in men occurred in those who received TLD (+4.6kg).


Harnaaz said that the reaction she received after her weight gain was jarring. "It was kind of uncomfortable and really surprising for me to see how people started having their opinions, which should not really matter," she explained. "It's not about how you look, it's about who you are from inside and how you treat people and what you believe in."


Natural: The Natural ID body tends to remain straight (weight gain does not create curviness). Excess weight tends to make you more square in shape as it broadens the midsection/waist area. Large weight gains give a very stocky appearance.


Classic: The Classic ID will remain symmetrical and balanced with weight gain. Therefore your weight gain, even larger amounts, will be evenly distributed. (In my opinion, this is another reason why the pure classic ID is a less common type).


Gamine: The Gamine ID will gain weight in the hip and waist areas. It is very rare for weight gain to appear above the waist. If a Gamine is a larger weight, the body will appear square or stockier, as opposed to curves forming.


Theatrical Romantic: The Theatrical Romantic ID figure will remain hourglass, and even with weight gain will have a defined waist. Upper arms, upper thighs, and face will become more fleshy.


Pregnancy can widen your hip bones, age can affect how you carry/gain weight, and hormones can definitely make your weight carry differently. So while these factors may not change your ID, they can certainly help you narrow the type down or change your own perspective on the ID.


You can really see the moderate features and vertical line in this curvy soft natural example. We can see her broad and blunt shoulder line and her soft hourglass shape that is furthered by her weight gain gently thickening her thighs and hips.


Kibbe says the Dramatic Classic is first and foremost a Classic ID, and both these women have balance and moderation to their appearance. The weight gain shows up in the hips and upper thighs and so they are now skewing more pear shape.


However, I think this woman is a good example of a plus-size flamboyant gamine. You can see in her photo that she does not appear overly tall, and is probably under 5 ft 5 in. She has a more square appearance, which is how weight gain shows for the FG. And her face has a lot of the FG staple traits: round eyes, oblong face shape, moderate lips, and a still visible cheekbone.


The Gamine is described as yin in size (petite), yin in facial features (full, rounded), and yang in body type (straight, angular). Now, as the gamine gains weight there is less prominent angularity but, we can still see the straightness and square weight gain effect.


The Theatrical Romantic is soft yin with slight yang undercurrent- which basically means you are a romantic first with a slight dramatic undercurrent. This woman portrays the theatrical romantic well. She seems slightly sharper than a traditional romantic but still has the hourglass frame throughout weight gains and losses.


This woman is a great example of the romantic ID. She has the double curve that creates an hourglass, but her weight is also visibly rounding out her midsection. Her face has traditional romantic features like a soft chin, a rounded nose tip, a slightly wider face, and a full face (common with the weight gain pattern).